Call Us On 01562 747356
Send An Enquiry
E-Mail Us
Request Free Print Review
PPS Labels

Technical Glossary

A/W An abbreviation for artwork.

AA An abbreviation for Author's Alteration(s)

Abrasion resistance The resistance to scratching of a surface of paper by other paper surfaces or other materials.

Absorbency The ability of a material to take up moisture

AC Abbreviation for Author's Correction(s)

Accordion fold Folding paper by bending each fold in the opposite direction of the previous fold creating a pleated or accordion effect.

Acetate A transparent or translucent plastic sheet material coming in a variety of colours, used as a basis for artwork and overlays.

Achromatic The non-colours: - black, white and gray.

Acrylic A water-soluble polymer added to paints to make it tough and flexible after drying.

Actinic rays Light exposure that affects chemical changes in paper.

Additive colours In photographic reproduction, the primary colours of red, green and blue are mixed to form all other colours.

Aerate This refers to a manual process in which an air stream is blown onto paper sheets to create a riffling effect that separates the sheets as they are fed to the printing press.

Agate A type size of 5 1/2 points. See also Agate Line.

Agate line In newspaper classifieds, a measurement denoting 1/4-inch depth by one column width. There are 14 agate lines in one column inch.

Air Large white areas in a design layout

Airbrush A compressed air tool that dispenses a fine mist of paint or ink. It is used in illustration and photo retouching.

Albion press A hand-operated printing press made of iron.

Album paper A wood pulp paper with an antique finish used for pages of photo albums.

Albumen plate A surface plate used in the lithography process. It has a photosensitive coating.

Albumin paper A coated paper used in photography. The coating is made of albumen (egg whites) and ammonium chloride.

Alignment The position of type and or art materials as they are aligned on a horizontal or vertical line.

Alkali blue Also called reflex blue. A pigment used in carbon black inks and varnishes to improve luster.

Alley A random, coincidental path or a row of white space within a segment of copy.

Alphabet length The measured length (in points) of the lowercase alphabet of a certain size and series of type.

Amberlith A red-orange acetate used for masking mechanicals when photographing for plates. The amberlith area appears black to the camera, and prints clear on the resulting film.

American Paper Institute An organization that correlates all paper-related information.

Angle bar In web-fed printing (printing on rolls of paper as opposed to single sheets), an angle bar is a metal bar that is used to turn paper between two components of the press.

Aniline An oil based solvent (quick drying) used in the preparation process of dyes and inks.

Animal sized A technique of papermaking that hardens the paper surface by passing the paper through a bath of animal glue or gelatin.

Anodized plate In lithography, a plate manufactured with a barrier of aluminum oxide, which prevents chemical reactions from breaking down the plate; it provides optimum press performance.

Antigua An eleventh century Italian script typeface.

Anti-halation backing A protective coating used on film (non-emulsion side) that prevents light from reflecting back, or haloing back into the emulsion.

Antiquarian A handmade paper (53 x 31 inches) largest known handmade paper.

Antique finish Paper with a rough, sized surface used for book and cover stock.

Antiskinning agent An antioxidant agent used to prevent inks from skinning over in the can.

Apron The white area of text (or illustrations) at the margins, which form a foldout.

Aqua tint A printing process that uses the recessed areas of the plate; ideal for graded and even tones.

Aquarelle The hand application of colour, through stencils onto a printed picture.

Aqueous plate Water-soluble plate coatings, which are less toxic and less polluting.

Arc light A light source produced by the passing of electric current between two electrodes; used in the production of plates in photolithography.

Arms Those elements of letters that branch out from the stem of a letter, such as: "K" and "Y".

Arrowhead A symbol shaped like an arrowhead that is used in an illustration to direct a leader line.

Art lined envelope An envelope that is lined with an extra fine paper; can be coloured or patterned.

Art paper A paper evenly coated with a fine clay compound, which creates a hard smooth surface on one or both sides.

Art work Any material or image that is prepared for graphic reproduction.

Artwork All illustrated material, ornamentation, photos and charts, etc. that is prepared for reproduction.

As to press In gravure printing, (recessed areas of plate hold ink), a term used for proofs showing the final position of colour images.

ASA A number set by the American Standards Assoc., which is placed on film stock to allow calculation of the length and "F" number of an exposure. See also "F" numbers.

Ascender Any part of a lower case letter which rises above the main body of the letter such as in "d", "b" and "h".

Assembled negative Film negatives consisting of line and halftone copy that are used to make plates for printing.

Assembled view In illustration, a term used to describe a view of a drawing in its assembled or whole format.

Autochrome paper Coated papers that are regarded as exceptional for multi-coloured printing jobs.

Autolithography A printing method whereby the image is hand drawn or etched directly onto lithography plates or stones.

Autopositive Any photo materials that provide positive images without a negative.

Azure The light blue colour used in the nomenclature of "laid" and "wove" papers.

Back lining The fixing of a material, either paper or cloth, to the back of a book before it is bound. See also case binding.

Back margin A term referring to the margin that lies closest to the back of the book.

Back step collation The collation of book signatures according to reference marks that are printed on the back fold of each section.

Back to back Print applied to both sides of a sheet of paper.

Backbone That portion of the binding, which connects the front of the book with the back of the book; also called "back".

Background That portion of a photograph or line art drawing that appears furthest from the eye; the surface upon which the main image is superimposed.

Backslant Any type that tilts to the left or backward direction; opposite of italic type.

Backstep marks Marks printed on signatures that indicate where the final fold will occur. When gathering and initial folding is completed, these marks appear as a stepped sequence.

Baking A term given to the procedure of drying coatings onto papers.

Balance A term used to describe the aesthetic or harmony of elements, whether they are photos, art or copy, within a layout or design.

Balloon In an illustration, any line that encircles copy or dialogue.

Bank paper A thin uncoated stock used for making carbon copies.

Banker's flap envelope Also called wallet flap; the wallet flap has more rounded flap edges.

Banner The primary headline usually spanning the entire width of a page.

Barn doors A device with two sets of thin metal doors (horizontal and vertical) placed before a light source to control the direction of light.

Barrier coat A coating that is applied onto the non-printing side of paper to add to the opacity of that paper. See also opacity.

Baryta paper A coated stock (barium sulfate compound) used for text impressions on typesetting machines.

Bas-relief A three-dimensional impression is which the image stands just slightly out from the flat background. See also blind emboss.

Base The support onto which printing plates are fixed.

Base film The foundation material onto which the film positives are stripped for making printing plates. See also photomechanical.

Base line The imaginary horizontal line upon which stand capitals, lower case letters, punctuation points, etc.

Basic size A standard size of paper stock; even though the required size may be smaller or larger.

Basis weight Basis or basic weight refers to the weight, in pounds, of a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard size for that particular paper grade.

Bastard Any non-standard or abnormal element, i.e. a font that is different than the set of fonts in which it appears.

Bauhaus A design school in Germany where the Sans Serif font was originated.

Bearoff The adjusting of spacing of type in order to correct the justification.

Bed The steel flat table of a cylinder printing press upon which the type sits during the printing process.

Bending chip A recycled paperboard product used for making folding cartons.

BF An abbreviation for boldface, used to determine where boldface copy is to be used. See also boldface.

Bible paper A thin but strong paper (opaque), used for bibles and books.

Bimetal plate A plate that is used in long print runs; the printing image is copper or brass, and the non-printing area is aluminum or stainless steel.

Binder's board A heavy paperboard with a cloth covering that is used for hardback binding of books.

Bite The etching process in photoengraving requires the application of an acid; the length of time this acid is left to etch out an image is referred to as its bite. The more bites, the deeper the etched area.

Black letter An old style of typeface used in Germany in the 15th century, also referred to as Old English (US) and Gothic (UK).

Black out Also referred to as black patch; a piece of masking material which is used in layout to mask an area leaving a window into which another element can be stripped.

Black photo paper A black paper used to protect photosensitive materials.

Black printer Refers to the film portion of the colour separation process that prints black; increases the contrast of neutral tones.

Blackening Darkening a portion of a sheet of paper due to the excessive pressure of the calendar roll. See also calendar rolls.

Blanket The rubber surfaced material, which is secured onto a cylinder onto which the image is transferred from the plate and then again transferred to paper.

Blanket to blanket press A printing method in which there are two blanket cylinders through which a sheet of paper is passed and printed on both sides.

Bleed Any copy, art illustration, photo, colour, etc. that extends past the edge of the printed page.

Blind emboss A design or bas relief impression that is made without using inks or metal foils.

Blind folio A page that is counted in the overall counting of pages, but the number is not printed on the page.

Blind image A problem that arises in the lithography process when an image loses its ink receptivity and fails to print.

Blistering Although seemingly dry, paper does contain approximately 5% moisture. In cases where there is excessive moisture, and the paper is passed through a high heat-drying chamber, the moisture within the paper actually boils and causes a bubble or blistering effect.

Block Illustrations or line art etched onto zinc or copper plates and used in letterpress printing.

Block in To sketch the primary areas and points of reference of an illustration in preparation for going to final design or production.

Block resistance The resistance of coated papers to blocking. See also blocking.

Blocking The adhesion of one coated sheet to another, causing paper tears or particles of the coating to shed away from the paper surface.

Blocking out To mask a section of an art layout before reproduction.

Blow-up Any enlargement of photos, copies or line art.

Blueline proof A photographic process whereby flats are exposed to blacklight and processed to create blue lines of copy that are proofread before a project goes to press. Also called "DYLUX".

Body The main shank or portion of the letter character other than the ascenders and descenders.

Body A term used to define the thickness or viscosity of printer's ink.

Body size The point size of a particular type character.

Boldface Any type that has a heavier black stroke that makes it more conspicuous.

Bolts The edges of folded sheets of paper, which are trimmed off in the final stages of production.

Bond A grade of durable writing, printing and typing paper that has a standard size of 17x22 inches.

Book A general classification to describe papers used to print books; its standard size is 25x38 inches.

Book A printed work that contains more than 64 pages.

Book block A term given the unfinished stage of bookmaking when the pages are folded, gathered and stitched-in but not yet cover bound.

Bourges A pressure sensitive colour film that is used to prepare colour art.

Box cover paper A lightweight paper used expressly for covering paper boxes.

Box enamel paper A glossy coated paper used to cover paper boxes.

Box liners A coated paper used on the inside of boxes, which are used for food.

Brace A character " }" used to group lines, or phrases.

Break for colour In layout design, the term for dividing or separating the art and copy elements into single colour paste-up sheets.

Bristol board A board paper of various thicknesses; having a smooth finish and used for printing and drawing.

Broad fold A term given to the fold whereby paper is folded with the short side running with the grain.

Brocade A heavily embossed paper.

Brochure A pamphlet that is bound in booklet form.

Bronzing A printing method whereby special ink is applied to sheets and then a powder is applied producing a metallic effect.

Brownline proof A photographic proof made by exposing a flat to UV light creating a brown image on a white background. Also referred to as silverprint.

Buckle folder A portion of the binding machinery with rollers that fold the paper.

Buckram A coarse sized cloth used in the bookbinding process.

Bulk A term given to paper to describe its thickness relative to its weight.

Bulk A term used to define the number of pages per inch of a book relative to its given basis weight.

Bullet A boldface square or dot used before a sentence to emphasize its importance.

Bump Exposure A process used in halftone photography that temporarily removes the screen during exposure. This increases the highlight contrast and diminishes the dots in the whites.

Burn A term used in plate making to describe the amount of plate exposure time.

Burnish A term used for the process of "rubbing down" lines and dots on a printing plate, which darkens those rubbed areas.

Burst Binding A binding technique that entails nicking the backfold in short lengths during the folding process, which allows glue to reach each individual leaf and create a strong bond.

Cable paper A strong paper used to wrap electrical cables.

Cadmium yellow A pigment made from cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide.

Calendar board A strong paperboard used for calendars and displays.

Calendar rolls A series of metal rolls at the end of a paper machine; when the paper is passed between these rolls it increases its smoothness and glossy surface.

Caliper The measurement of thickness of paper expressed in thousandths of an inch or mils.

Cameo A dull coated paper, which is particularly useful in reproducing halftones and engravings.

Camera ready A term given to any copy, artwork etc., that is prepared for photographic reproduction.

Canvas board A paperboard with a surface of simulated canvas, used for painting.

Cap line An imaginary horizontal line running across the tops of capital letters.

Caps & lower case Instructions in the typesetting process that indicate the use of a capital letter to start a sentence and the rest of the letters in lower case.

Caps & small caps Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type.

Carbon black A pigment made of elemental carbon and ash.

Carbon tissue A colour printing process utilizing pigmented gelatin coatings on paper, which become the resist for etching gravure plates or cylinders.

Carbonate paper A chemical pulp paper (calcium carbonate), used mostly for the printing of magazines.

Cartridge A rough finished paper used for wrapping.

Case The stiff covers of a hardbound book.

Case binding Books bound using hard board (case) covers.

Casein A milk byproduct used as an adhesive in making coated papers.

Casing in The process of placing in and adhering a book to its case covers.

Cast coated A paper that is coated and then pressure dried using a polished roller that imparts an enamel like hard gloss finish.

Catching up A term to describe that period of the printing process where the non-image areas can take on ink or debris.

Chain lines Lines that appear on laid paper as a result of the wires of the papermaking machine.

Chalking A term used to describe the quality of print on paper where the absorption of the paper is so great that it breaks up the ink image creating loose pigment dust.

Chancery italic A 13th century handwriting style that is the root of italic design.

China clay An aluminum silica compound used in gravure and screen printing inks. Also called kaolin.

Chrome green The resulting ink pigment attained from the mixture of chrome yellow and iron blue.

Chrome yellow A lead chromate yellow ink pigment.

Circular screen A screen that utilizes a concentric circle pattern as opposed to dots used for halftones and to allow the platemaker to set exact screen angles.

Clay coated boxboard A strong, easily folded boxboard with clay coating used for making folding boxes.

Coarse screen Halftone screens commonly used in newsprint; up to 85 lines per inch.

Coated art paper Printing papers used for printing projects that require a special treatment of detail and shading.

Coated stock Any paper that has a mineral coating applied after the paper is made, giving the paper a smoother finish.

Cold colour Any colour that moves toward the blue side in the colour spectrum.

Cold-set inks A variety of inks that are in solid form originally but are melted in a hot press and then solidified when they contact paper.

Collate To gather sheets or signatures together in their correct order.

Colophon A printers' or publishers' identifying symbol or emblem.

Colour bars This term refers to a colour test strip, that is printed on the waste portion of a press sheet. It is a standardized (GATF-Graphic Arts Technical Foundation) process that allows a pressman to determine the quality of the printed material relative to ink density, registration and dot gain. It also includes the Star Target, which is a similar system designed to detect inking problems.

Colour separating The processes of separating the primary colour components for printing.

Colour strength A term referring to the relative amount of pigmentation in an ink.

Colour transparency Transparent film containing a positive photographic colour image.

Commercial register colour registration measured within plus or minus one row of dots.

Condensed type A narrow, elongated typeface.

Contact print A print made from contact of a sensitive surface to a negative or positive photograph.

Contact screen A halftone screen made on film of graded density, and used in a vacuum contact with the film.

Contrast The degree of tonal separation or gradation in the range from black to white.

Contre jour Taking a picture with the camera lens facing the light source.

Copy Refers to any typewritten material, art, photos etc., to be used for the printing process.

Copyboard A board upon which the copy is pasted for the purpose of photographing.

Corner marks Marks on a final printed sheet that indicate the trim lines or register indicators.

Cover A term describing a general type of papers used for the covers of books, pamphlets etc.

Creep When the rubber blanket on a cylinder moves forward due to contact with the plate or paper.

Crop To eliminate a portion of the art or copy as indicated by crop marks.

Crossmarks Marks of fine lines, which intersect to indicate accurate alignment of art elements.

Crossover A term used to describe the effect of ink from an image, rule or line art on one printed page, which carries over to another page of a bound work.

Curl A term used to describe the differences of either side of a sheet relative to coatings, absorbency etc.; the concave side is the curl side.

Cut-off A term used in web press printing to describe the point at which a sheet of paper is cut from the roll; usually this dimension is equal to the circumference of the cylinder.

Cyan A shade of blue used in the four-colour process; it reflects blue and green and absorbs red.

Cylinder gap The gap in the cylinders of a press where the grippers or blanket clamps are housed.

Dahlgren A dampening system for printing presses which utilizes more alcohol (25%) and less water; this greatly reduces the amount of paper that is spoiled.

Dampening An essential part of the printing process whereby cloth covered rubber rollers distributes the dampening solution to the plate.

Dandy roll During the paper making process while the paper is still 90% water, it passes over a wire mesh cylinder (dandy roll), which imparts surface textures on the paper such as wove or laid. This is also the stage where the watermark is put onto the paper.

Deckle edge The rough or feathered edge of paper when left untrimmed.

Deep etching The etching or removal of any unwanted areas of a plate to create more air or white space on the finished product.

Delete An instruction given to remove an element from a layout.

Demy A term that describes a standard sized printing paper measuring 17.5 x 22.5 in.

Densitometer An optical device used by printers and photographers to measure and control the density of colour.

Density The lay of paper fibers relative to tightness or looseness that affects the bulk, the absorbency and the finish of the paper.

Density The degree of tone, weight of darkness or colour within a photo or reproduction; measurable by the densitometer. See also densitometer.

Descender A term that describes that portion of lower case letters that extends below the main body of the letter, as in "p".

Diazo A light sensitive coal tar product used as a coating on presensitized plates, as well as overlay proofs.

Die An engraved stamp used for impressing an image or design.

Die cutting A method of using sharp steel ruled stamps or rollers to cut various shapes i.e. labels, boxes, image shapes, either post press or in line.

Die Cutting The process of cutting paper in a shape or design by the use of a wooden die or block in which are positioned steel rules in the shape of the desired pattern.

Die stamping An intaglio process for printing from images engraved into copper or steel plates.

Digital Proof colour separation data is digitally stored and then exposed to colour photographic paper creating a picture of the final product before it is actually printed.

Dimensional stability The qualities of paper to stabilize its original size when undergoing pressure or exposed to moisture.

Diploma A fine paper made specifically for the printing of diplomas, certificates and documents.

Direct screen halftone A colour separation process using a halftone negative made by direct contact with the halftone screen.

Display type Any type that stands out from the rest of the type on a page that attracts attention of the reader.

Distribution rollers In the printing process, the rubber coated rollers responsible for the distribution of ink from the fountain to the ink drum.

Doctor blade A term in gravure printing which refers to the knife-edge that runs along the printing cylinder; its function is to wipe the excess ink away from the non-printing areas.

Dot The smallest individual element of a halftone.

Dot gain Terms to describe the occurrence whereby dots are printing larger than they should.

Drawdown A method used by ink makers to determine the colour, quality and tone of ink. It entails the drawing of a spatula over a drop of ink, spreading it flat over the paper.

Drier A term that describes any additives to ink which accelerates the drying process.

Drill The actual drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding.

Drop shadow A shadow image placed strategically behind an image to create the affect of the image lifting off the page.

Dry mount Pasting with heat sensitive adhesives.

Ductor roller The roller between the inking and the dampening rollers.

Dull finish Any matte finished paper.

Dummy A term used to describe the preliminary assemblage of copy and art elements to be reproduced in the desired finished product; also called a comp.

Duotone A two-colour halftone reproduction generated from a one-colour photo.

Duplex paper Paper which has a different colour or finish on each side.

Dutch Any deckle edged paper, originally produced in the Netherlands. See also deckle edge.

Dye based ink Any ink that acquires its colour by the use of aniline pigments or dyes. See also aniline.

Eggshell finish The finish of paper surface that resembles an eggshell achieved by omitting the calendar process. See also calendar rolls.

Electronic Proof A process of generating a prepress proof in which paper is electronically exposed to the colour separation negatives; the paper is passed through the electrically charged pigmented toners, which adhere electrostatically, resulting in the finished proof.

Elliptical dot Halftone screens in which the dots are actually elongated to produce improved middle tones.

Em A unit of measurement equaling 12 points or 4.5mm.

Embossed A method of paper finishing whereby a pattern is pressed into the paper when it is dry.

Embossing The molding and reshaping of paper by the use of special metal dies and heat, counter dies and pressure, to produce a raised image on the paper surface.

Emulsion A light-sensitive substance used as a coating for film; made from a silver halide compound. This side should face the lens when the film is exposed.

Enamel A term that describes a glossy coating on paper.

Endsheet Attaching the final sheet of a signature of a book to the binding.

English finish A grade of uncoated book paper with a smooth uniform surface.

Engraving A printing process whereby images such as copy or art are etched onto a plate. When ink is applied, these etched areas act as small wells to hold the ink; paper is forced against this die and the ink is lifted out of the etched areas creating raised images on the paper.

Estimate The form used by the printer to calculate the project for the print buyer. This form contains the basic parameters of the project including size, quantity, colours, bleeds, photos etc.

Etch The process of producing an image on a plate by the use of acid.

Even smalls The use of smaller sized capitals at the beginning of a sentence without the use of larger sized caps.

Expanded type Type with width greater than normal producing a rectangular effect.

Exposure That stage of the photographic process where the image is produced on the light-sensitive coating.

Extender A white pigment added to a coloured pigment to reduce its intensity and improve its working qualities.

F&G A term in the binding process referring to folding and gathering.

Fan fold Paper folding that emulates an accordion or fan, the folds being alternating and parallel.

Fat face Type that is quite varied in its use of very thin and very wide strokes.

Felt A cloth conveyor belt that receives papers from the Fourdrinier wire and delivers it to the drier.

Felt finish The smoother side of paper, usually a soft weave pattern used for book papers.

Felt side It is the top side of the sheet in the paper making process that does not lie on the Fourdrinier wire.

Filling in A fault in printing where the ink fills in the fine line or halftone dot areas.

Film coat Also called wash coat; any thinly coated paper stock.

Finish The surface quality of paper.

Fist A symbol used in printing to indicate the index; seen as a pointing finger on a hand "+".

Fit The registration of items within a given page.

Flash point A term given to the lowest temperature of ignitibility of vapors given off by a substance.

Flat The assemblage of negatives and positives that are used as a composite image to create the printing plate.

Flock paper Paper that is patterned by sizing, and than coated with powders of wool or cotton (flock).

Fluid ink Also called liquid ink; ink with low viscosity.

Flush cover A bound book or booklet having the cover trimmed to the same size as the text.

Flushed pigment The results of combining a wet ink pigment with a varnish and having the wet pigment mix or transfer over to the varnish.

Foils Papers that have a surface resembling metal.

Font The characters which make up a complete typeface and size.

Form rollers The rollers that come into direct contact with the plate of a printing press.

Fourdrinier A machine with a copper wire screen that receives the pulp slurry in the paper making process; it will become the final paper sheet.

Free sheet Any paper that is free from wood pulp impurities.

Fringe A halo that appears around halftone dots.

Fugitive inks colours that lose tone and permanency when exposed to light.

Furnish The slurry mixture of fibers, water, chemicals and pigments that is delivered to the Fourdrinier machine in the paper making process.

Fuzz A term for the fibers that project from the paper surface.

Galley proof A proof of text copy before it is pasted into position for printing.

Ganging The bundling of two or more different printing projects on the same sheet of paper.

Gathering Assembling sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence; See also collate.

Glassine A strong transparent paper.

Gloss ink Quick drying oil-based inks with low penetration qualities, used on coated stock.

Glyphic A carved as opposed to scripted typeface.

Goldenrod An orange coloured paper with gridlines, used to assemble materials for exposure for platemaking.

Grain Paper fibers lie in a certain direction, this direction is called the grain.

Grained paper A paper embossed to resemble various textures, such as leather, alligator, wood, etc.

Gravure An intaglio or recessed printing process. The recessed areas are like wells that form the image as paper passes through.

Gripper A series of metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it passes through the various stages of the printing process.

Gripper edge The grippers of the printing press move the paper through the press by holding onto the leading edge of the sheet; this edge is the gripper edge.

Groundwood Low cost papers such as newsprint made by the mechanical pulping process as opposed to chemical pulping and refining.

Gumming The application of gum arabic to the non-printing areas of a plate.

Gutter The blank space or margin between the type page and the binding of a book.

Hairline Register Printing registration that lies within the range of plus or minus one half row of dots. It is the thinnest of the standard printers' rules.

Halftone The use of screening devices to convert a continuous tone image (such as a photo), into a reproducible dot pattern, which can be more easily printed.

Halftone paper A high finish paper that is ideal for halftone printing.

Halftone screen A sheet of film or glass containing ruled right-angled lines, used to translate the full tone of a photo to the halftone dot image required for printing.

Hard dot The effect in a photograph where a dot has such a small degree of halation that the dot shows quite sharp.

Head margin That space which lies between the top of the printed copy and the trimmed edge.

Hickey A term used to describe the effect that occurs when a spec of dust or debris (dried ink) adheres to the printing plate and creates a spot or imperfection in the printing.

High bulk paper Paper stock that is comparatively thick in relation to its basis weight.

High key halftone A halftone that is made utilizing only the highlight tones down through the middle tones.

Highlights The lightest tones of a photo, printed halftone or illustration. In the finished halftone, these highlights are represented by the finest dots.

Hollow That space on the spine of a case-bound book between the block of the book and the case binding.

Hot melt An adhesive used in the binding process, which requires heat for application.

House sheet This is a term that refers to a paper that a printer keeps on hand in his shop.

Image area That portion of the printing plate that carries the ink and prints on paper.

Imposition The correct sequential arrangement of pages that are to be printed, along with all the margins in proper alignment, before producing the plates for printing.

Impression The pressure of the image carrier, whether it be the type, plate or blanket, when it contacts the paper.

Index bristol A relatively thick paper stock; basis size---25 1/2 x 30 1/2.

Indicia Markings pre-printed on mailing envelopes to replace the stamp.

Industrial papers A term used to denote papers such as janitorial, sanitary or heavy packing papers.

Ink fountain The device that stores and meters ink to the inking rollers.

Ink holdout A quality of paper to be resistant to ink absorption, allowing the ink to dry on the paper surface.

Ink mist Any threads or filaments that protrude from the main printed letter body of long inks, as seen in newsprint.

Ink setting The inertial resistance to flow that occurs to ink as soon as it is printed.

Inkometer A device used to measure the tack of ink.

Insert A piece of printed material that is prepared for the purpose of being inserted into another piece of printed material, such as a magazine.

Integral Proof A proof made by exposing each of the four-colour separations to an emulsion layer of primary colours. These emulsion sheets are stacked in register with a white sheet of paper in the background. Types of integral proofs are cromalin, matchprint, ektaflex, and spactraproof.

Iridescent paper A coated stock finished in mother-of-pearl.

Italic Text that is used to denote emphasis by slanting the type body forward.

Jacket The paper cover sometimes called the "dust cover" of a hardbound book.

Jog To vibrate a stack of finished pages so that they are tightly aligned for final trimming.

Kerning The narrowing of space between two letters so that they become closer and take up less space on the page.

Key plate The printing plate that is used as a guide for the other plates in the colour printing process; it usually has the most detail.

Keying The use of symbols, usually letters, to code copy that will appear on a dummy.

Keyline Lines that are drawn on artwork that indicate the exact placement, shape and size of elements including halftones, illustrations, etc.

Kiss impression A delicate printed impression, just heavy enough to be seen.

Kraft A coarse unbleached paper used for printing and industrial products.

Lacquer A clear gloss coating applied to printed material for strength, appearance and protection.

Laid finish A parallel lined paper that has a handmade look.

Laser Engraving A paper cutting technique whereby laser technology is utilized to cut away certain unmasked areas of the paper. The cutting is a result of the exposure of the paper to the laser ray, which actually evaporates the paper.

Layout A rendition that shows the placement of all the elements, roughs, thumbnails etc., of the final printed piece before it goes to print.

Leaders The dots or dashes used in type to guide the eye from one set of type to the next.

Leading Space between lines of type; the distance in points between one baseline and the next.

Leaf stamping A metal die, either flat or embossed, created from the image or copy, which is then heated to a specific temperature allows the transfer of a film of pigmented polyester to the paper.

Ledger paper A stiff, heavy business paper generally used for keeping records.

Length The optimum length of a filament of ink.

Letterpress Printing that utilizes inked raised surfaces to create the image.

Letterspacing The addition of space between typeset letters.

Line copy Any copy that can be reproduced without the use of halftone screens.

Linen A paper that emulates the look and texture of linen cloth.

Lithocoated paper A paper that is coated with a special water-resistant material that is able to withstand the lithographic process.

Lithography The process of printing that utilizes flat inked surfaces to create the printed images.

Logotype A personalized type or design symbol for a company or product.

M weight The actual weight of 1000 sheets of any given size of paper.

Machine coated Paper that has had a coating applied to either one or two of its sides during the papermaking process.

Machine direction An alternate term for grain direction.

Machine finish A paper finish that results from the interaction of the paper with the Fourdrinier process as opposed to post machine embossing. See also Fourdrinier.

Magnetic black Black pigments containing black iron oxides, used for magnetic ink character recognition.

Make-ready Paper that is used in the press set-up process before the printing run actually starts.

Mask The blocking out of a portion of the printing plate during the exposure process.

Mask A photo negative or positive used in the colour separation process to colour correct.

Matte finish A coated paper finish that goes through minimal calendaring.

Measure The width of type as measured in picas. See also pica.

Mechanical A term used to describe finished artwork that is camera ready for reproduction, including all type, photos, illustrations, etc.

Moiré An undesirable halftone pattern produced by the incorrect angles of overprinting halftone screens.

Molleton A cotton fabric used on the dampening rollers of a printing press.

Molybdate orange An ink pigment made from precipitating lead molybdate, lead sulfate and lead chromate.

Mottle A term used to describe spotty or uneven ink absorption.

Mullen testing A specific test of tensile paper strength; an important factor if web presses are used for printing.

Natural A term to describe papers that have a colour similar to that of wood; also called cream, off-white or ivory.

Negative Film that contains the same images as the original print, except that all colours and shades are reversed. See also positive.

Newsprint A light, low-cost groundwood paper made especially for newspapers. See also groundwood.

Nominal weight When the basis weight of paper differs from the actual weight, the term nominal weight is used.

Oblong A term used to describe printed books, catalogs, etc., that are bound on their shorter side; also referred to as album bound.

Offset The most commonly used printing method, whereby the printed material does not receive the ink directly from the printing plate but from an intermediary cylinder called a blanket that receives the ink from the plate and transfers it to the paper.

Offset gravure A complex offset process involving multiple transfers between the gravure plate, the plate cylinder and a solid rubber plate.

Offset paper A term for uncoated book paper.

Offshore paper Any papers made outside the US and Canada.

Onionskin A light bond paper used for typing and used with carbon paper because of its thinness.

Opacity Quality of papers that defines its opaqueness or ability to prevent two-sided printing from showing through.

Opaque A quality of paper that allows relatively little light to pass through.

Opaque ink Ink that completely covers any ink under itself.

Orthochromatic Any light sensitive surfaces that are not sensitive to red.

Overhang cover A cover of a book that extends over the trimmed signatures it contains.

Overlay A transparent sheet placed over artwork, in register with the work it covers; this is used to call out other colour components of the work, instructions or corrections.

Overlay proof A process of proof-making whereby the colour separations are individually exposed to light sensitive film. This film is then set in registration with a piece of white paper in the background.

Overprinting Any printing that is done on an area that has already been printed.

Overrun Quantities of sheets printed over the requested number of copies.

Overset Type that is set in excess of the allotted space.

Page makeup The assemblage of all the necessary elements required to complete a page.

Panchromatic Films or other photographic materials that are sensitive to all colours.

Paperboard Any paper with a thickness (caliper) of 12 points (.3mm) or more.

Papeterie A high-grade soft paper used for personal stationery because it accepts handwriting well.

Parchment A hard finished paper that emulates animal skin; used for documents, such as awards, that require writing by hand.

Parent sheet A sheet that is larger than the cut stock of the same paper.

Paste drier Any of a variety of compounds used in enhancing the drying properties of printing inks.

Paste ink An ink having a high level of viscosity.

Perfect A term used to describe the binding process where the signatures of a book are held together by a flexible adhesive.

Perfecting press A printing press that prints on both sides of the page in a single pass.

Phloxine A blue red pigment used mostly in news inks; not a good ink for lithographers, as it bleeds in alcohol and water.

Photomechanical The platemaking process where plates are coated with photosensitive coatings and exposed to photo negatives or positives.

Photostat A photographic print creating an image using photography and electrostatic processes; also called a stat.

Phthalocyanine The main pigment in the manufacture of cyan ink.

Pica A typesetting unit of measurement equaling 1/6th of an inch.

Picking When the tack of ink is stronger than the surface strength of the paper, some lifting of the paper surface occurs; this is referred to as picking.

Picking An occurrence in printing whereby the tack of ink pulls fibers or coating off the paper surface, leaving spots on the printed surface.

Piling A build up of pigment or paper coatings onto the plate, blankets or rollers.

Pin register Using metal pins fitted into preset holes of copy sheets, films, plates and presses that will assure the proper registration

Plastic comb A method of binding books whereby holes are drilled on the side closest to the spine, and a plastic grasping device is inserted to hold the pages together.

Plasticizer An ink additive that adds flexibility, softness and adhesion.

Plate cylinder The cylinder on a printing press on which the plate is mounted.

Plate finish Any bond, cover or bristol stock with an extremely smooth finish achieved by calendaring.

PMT Photomechanical transfer.

Point A measurement unit equal to 1/72 of an inch. 12 points to a pica, 72 points to an inch.

Positive Film that contains an image with the same tonal values as the original; opposite of a negative. See also negative.

PPI Pages per inch.

Premium Any paper that is considered better than #1 by its manufacturer.

Presensitized plate A plate that has been treated with light sensitive coatings by the manufacturer.

Primary colours In printing the four primary colours are cyan (blue), magenta (red), yellow and black.

Printability The quality of papers to show reproduced printed images.

Process lens A high quality specialty lens made for line art, halftone and colour photography.

Process printing Printing from two or more half tones to produce intermediate colours and shades.

Progressive proofs Any proofs made from the separate plates of a multi-plate-printing project.

Rag paper Papers with a complete or partial content of cotton fibers.

Ragged left The term given to right-justified type that is uneven on the left.

Ragged right The term given to left-justified type that is uneven on the right.

Railroad A thick, coated paper used for signs; usually waterproof.

Ream 500 sheets of paper.

Recto The odd numbered pages (right hand side) of books.

Red lake "C" A common pigment for paste and liquid red inks.

Reducer Any substance that softens and reduces the tack of ink.

Reel The master roll of paper as it comes off the papermaking machine. It is in its original width and is then cut into smaller rolls.

Register The arrangement of two or more images in exact alignment with each other.

Register marks Any crossmarks or other symbols used on layout to assure proper registration.

Right angle fold A term that denotes folds that are 90 degrees to each other.

Roll to roll A web press printing process where the roll of paper is printed and stored on a roll to beshipped.

Rub proof That stage of printed ink where the maximum dryness is achieved, and the ink will not smudge.

Rubine A pigment somewhat redder than true magenta.

Runability A term used to describe how well a paper runs on a printing press.

Run-around A term given to copy that accommodates the lines of a picture or other image or copy.

Running head A title at the top of a page that appears on all pages of a book or chapter of a book.

Saddle stitch The binding of booklets or other printed materials by stapling the pages on the folded spine; also called saddle wire.

Safety paper A paper that shows sign of erasure so that it cannot be altered or tampered with easily.

Satin finish A smooth, delicately embossed finished paper with sheen.

Scaling The enlargement or reduction of an image or copy to fit a specific area.

Scoring To impress paper with a rule for the purpose of making folding easier.

Screen angles The placement of halftone screens to avoid unwanted moiré patterns. Frequently used angles are black 45º, magenta 75º, yellow 90º, and cyan 105º.

Screen ruling A measurement equaling the number of lines or dots per inch on a halftone screen.

Screened print A photo print made by using a halftone negative; also called a velox.

Scum Unwanted ink marks in the non-image area.

Self cover A cover made out of the same paper stock as the internal sheets.

Sharpen To decrease the dot size of the halftone, which in turn decreases the colour strength.

Sheetwise The printing of two different images on two different sides of a sheet of paper by turning the page over after the first side is printed and using the same gripper and side guides.

Short ink Ink that is smooth and creamy but does not flow freely.

Show through A problem that occurs when the printing on one side of a sheet is seen from the other side.

Side guide The guides on the sides of the sheet fed press that position the sheet sideways as the paper is led towards the front guides.

Side stitch To staple sheets or signatures on the side closest to the spine.

Signature A printed sheet with many pages on it that is folded so that the pages are in their proper numbered sequence, as in a book.

Silhouette halftone A halftone with the background screen removed.

Silverprint See also brownline proof.

Slitting A term to describe the process of cutting of printed sheets by the cutting wheels of a printing press.

Smoothness That quality of paper defined by its levelness that allows for pressure consistency in printing, assuring uniformity of print.

Soft dot An excessively large halo around a dot in a photograph that causes a fringe that diminishes the dot intensity.

Spiral bind A binding whereby a wire or plastic is spiraled through holes punched along the binding side.

Spread A film image that is larger than the original image to accommodate ink trapping. See also trapping.

Stability The quality of paper to maintain its original size when it undergoes pressure and moisture changes.

Stagger cutting A process of cutting many sheets from the same parent sheet in which the smaller sheets have different grain directions; also called dutch or bastard cutting.

Star target The Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, GATF, has established various quality control images; the star target appears along with the colour bar and helps the pressman detect any irregularity in the ink spread. See also colour bars.

Static neutralizer A device on a printing press that minimizes the amount of static buildup on paper as it passes through the press.

Step and repeat A process of generating multiple exposures by taking an image and stepping it according to a predetermined layout.

Stet A proofreader's symbol that is usually written in the copy margin, that indicates that the copy, which was marked for correction, should be left as it was.

Stock A term for unprinted paper or other material to be printed.

Strip-in To add an element, such as copy that is shot separately, and then stripped into place on a goldenrod flat.

Stripping The positioning of positives and negatives on the flat before proceeding to platemaking.

Super calendaring A machine procedure that produces a high finished paper surface that is extremely smooth and exceptional for printing.

Synthetic papers Any petroleum-based waterproof papers with a high tensile strength.

Tack The adhesive quality of inks.

Tag A dense, strong paper stock.

Tensile strength A paper's ability to withstand pressure.

Text A high quality printing paper.

Thermography A printing process whereby slow drying ink is applied to paper and, while the ink is still wet, is lightly dusted with a resinous powder. The paper then passes through a heat chamber where the powder melts and fuses with the ink to produce a raised surface.

Through drier A slower drier that dries the ink throughout without forming a hard crust.

Ticket envelope Envelopes used mostly for theater tickets, with no other particular usage.

Tint A halftone screen that contains all the same sized dots.

Titanium oxide A bright white pigment (opaque) used for printing on metal and flexible packaging.

Toluidine red A red pigment with poor bleed resistance.

Tooth The rough surfaced finish of papers such as vellum or antique.

Transparent Inks that do not block out the coloured inks that they print over, but instead blend with them to create intermediate colours.

Trapping The process of printing wet ink over printed ink, which may be wet or dry.

Trim marks Marks placed on the sheet to indicate where to cut the page.

Twin wire machine Fourdrinier papermaking machines with two wires, instead of a wire and felt side. This assures higher quality when two sides are used for printing.

Two-sidedness The difference in feel and appearance of either side of a sheet of paper due to the papermaking process having a felt and wire side.

Uncalendared Papers that are not smoothed by going through the calendaring process.

Up A term used to describe how many similar sheets can be produced on a larger sheet; two up, four up, etc.

Upright A term given to books bound on the longer dimension.

Vacuum frame Also called a contact frame; used in the platemaking process to hold materials in tight contact during exposure.

Variable Data Printing Is a form of on-demand printing in which elements (such as text, graphics, photographs, etc) can be changed from one printed piece to the next, without stopping or slowing down the press, using information from a database. For example, a set of personalized letters, each with the same basic layout, can be printed with a different name and address on each letter.

Varnish The primary component of the ink vehicle. See also vehicle.

Vehicle A combination of varnish, waxes, dryers, etc., which contains the pigment of inks and controls the flow, the drying and the adhesion of the pigments to the printed surface.

Vellum A finish of paper that is rough, bulky and has a degree of tooth.

Velour paper A term given to papers that are coated with an adhesive and then flock dusted.

Velox A photographic print that is made from a negative.

Verso A term given to the left-hand or even-numbered pages of a book.

Vignette A photo or illustration, in which the tones fade gradually away until they blend with the surface they are printed on.

W&B An abbreviation for work and back. See also sheetwise.

W&T An abbreviation for work and turn.

Walk-off A term given to the occurrence of plate deterioration of the image area during the printing process; usually occurs on long runs.

Washup The procedure of cleaning a particular ink from all of the printing elements (rollers, plate, ink fountain etc.) of a press.

Watermark A translucent logo that is embossed during the papermaking process while the paper slurry is on the dandy roll. See also dandy roll.

Web The roll of paper that is used in web or rotary printing.

Web break A tear in a web roll during the printing process.

Web press A printing press that prints on rolls of paper passed through the press in one continuous piece, as opposed to sheets of paper.

Web tension The term given to the tension or pull exerted by the web press on the web roll.

Wedding paper A soft paper that is thick and holds up well under embossing.

Wet trapping The ability of an ink film to accept subsequent ink films.

Widow A single word or two left at the end of a paragraph, or a part of a sentence ending a paragraph, which loops over to the next page and stands alone. Also, the last sentence of a paragraph, which contains only one or two short words.

Wipe on plate A plate on which is wiped a light sensitive coating by a coating device; usually the first step in this type of platemaking.

Wire side That side of the paper that lies on the wire screen side of the papermaking machine.

Wove A smooth paper made on finely textured wire that gives the paper a gentle patterned finish.

Wrinkles The unevenly dried surface of printed inks.

Writing paper Another name for bond paper.

Xerographic paper Papers made to reproduce well in copy machines and laser printers.

Yield value The actual amount of force needed to start an ink flowing.

Home || Enquiry || About Us || Services || Our Facility || Technical || News || Site Map || Contact Details
Powered By NetSecrets Progressive Print Services Ltd
Units 6-7 Llewellyn Close Sandy Lane Industrial Estate Stourport on Severn
Worcestershire DY13 9QB
Tel 01299 825905 Fax 01299 825905