An abbreviation for artwork.
AA An abbreviation
for Author's Alteration(s)
The resistance to scratching of a surface of paper by
other paper surfaces or other materials.
ability of a material to take up moisture
for Author's Correction(s)
Folding paper by bending each fold in the opposite direction
of the previous fold creating a pleated or accordion
Acetate A transparent
or translucent plastic sheet material coming in a variety
of colours, used as a basis for artwork and overlays.
non-colours: - black, white and gray.
Acrylic A water-soluble
polymer added to paints to make it tough and flexible
Actinic rays Light
exposure that affects chemical changes in paper.
In photographic reproduction, the primary colours of
red, green and blue are mixed to form all other colours.
Aerate This refers
to a manual process in which an air stream is blown
onto paper sheets to create a riffling effect that separates
the sheets as they are fed to the printing press.
Agate A type size
of 5 1/2 points. See also Agate Line.
Agate line In newspaper
classifieds, a measurement denoting 1/4-inch depth by
one column width. There are 14 agate lines in one column
Air Large white
areas in a design layout
Airbrush A compressed
air tool that dispenses a fine mist of paint or ink.
It is used in illustration and photo retouching.
press A hand-operated printing press
made of iron.
Album paper A wood
pulp paper with an antique finish used for pages of
Albumen plate A
surface plate used in the lithography process. It has
a photosensitive coating.
Albumin paper A
coated paper used in photography. The coating is made
of albumen (egg whites) and ammonium chloride.
Alignment The position
of type and or art materials as they are aligned on
a horizontal or vertical line.
Alkali blue Also
called reflex blue. A pigment used in carbon black inks
and varnishes to improve luster.
Alley A random,
coincidental path or a row of white space within a segment
The measured length (in points) of the lowercase alphabet
of a certain size and series of type.
Amberlith A red-orange
acetate used for masking mechanicals when photographing
for plates. The amberlith area appears black to the
camera, and prints clear on the resulting film.
American Paper Institute
An organization that correlates all paper-related information.
Angle bar In web-fed
printing (printing on rolls of paper as opposed to single
sheets), an angle bar is a metal bar that is used to
turn paper between two components of the press.
Aniline An oil
based solvent (quick drying) used in the preparation
process of dyes and inks.
Animal sized A
technique of papermaking that hardens the paper surface
by passing the paper through a bath of animal glue or
In lithography, a plate manufactured with a barrier
of aluminum oxide, which prevents chemical reactions
from breaking down the plate; it provides optimum press
Antigua An eleventh
century Italian script typeface.
A protective coating used on film (non-emulsion side)
that prevents light from reflecting back, or haloing
back into the emulsion.
Antiquarian A handmade
paper (53 x 31 inches) largest known handmade paper.
Paper with a rough, sized surface used for book and
An antioxidant agent used to prevent inks from skinning
over in the can.
Apron The white
area of text (or illustrations) at the margins, which
form a foldout.
Aqua tint A printing
process that uses the recessed areas of the plate; ideal
for graded and even tones.
Aquarelle The hand
application of colour, through stencils onto a printed
Aqueous plate Water-soluble
plate coatings, which are less toxic and less polluting.
Arc light A light
source produced by the passing of electric current between
two electrodes; used in the production of plates in
Arms Those elements
of letters that branch out from the stem of a letter,
such as: "K" and "Y".
Arrowhead A symbol
shaped like an arrowhead that is used in an illustration
to direct a leader line.
Art lined envelope
An envelope that is lined with an extra fine paper;
can be coloured or patterned.
Art paper A paper
evenly coated with a fine clay compound, which creates
a hard smooth surface on one or both sides.
Art work Any material
or image that is prepared for graphic reproduction.
Artwork All illustrated
material, ornamentation, photos and charts, etc. that
is prepared for reproduction.
As to press In
gravure printing, (recessed areas of plate hold ink),
a term used for proofs showing the final position of
ASA A number set
by the American Standards Assoc., which is placed on
film stock to allow calculation of the length and "F"
number of an exposure. See also "F" numbers.
Ascender Any part
of a lower case letter which rises above the main body
of the letter such as in "d", "b"
Film negatives consisting of line and halftone copy
that are used to make plates for printing.
Assembled view In illustration,
a term used to describe a view of a drawing in its assembled
or whole format.
Coated papers that are regarded as exceptional for multi-coloured
A printing method whereby the image is hand drawn or
etched directly onto lithography plates or stones.
photo materials that provide positive images without
Azure The light
blue colour used in the nomenclature of "laid"
and "wove" papers.
Back lining The
fixing of a material, either paper or cloth, to the
back of a book before it is bound. See also case binding.
Back margin A term
referring to the margin that lies closest to the back
of the book.
Back step collation
The collation of book signatures according to reference
marks that are printed on the back fold of each section.
Back to back Print
applied to both sides of a sheet of paper.
Backbone That portion
of the binding, which connects the front of the book
with the back of the book; also called "back".
portion of a photograph or line art drawing that appears
furthest from the eye; the surface upon which the main
image is superimposed.
Backslant Any type
that tilts to the left or backward direction; opposite
of italic type.
Marks printed on signatures that indicate where the
final fold will occur. When gathering and initial folding
is completed, these marks appear as a stepped sequence.
Baking A term given
to the procedure of drying coatings onto papers.
Balance A term
used to describe the aesthetic or harmony of elements,
whether they are photos, art or copy, within a layout
Balloon In an illustration,
any line that encircles copy or dialogue.
Bank paper A thin
uncoated stock used for making carbon copies.
Banker's flap envelope
Also called wallet flap; the wallet flap has more rounded
Banner The primary
headline usually spanning the entire width of a page.
Barn doors A device
with two sets of thin metal doors (horizontal and vertical)
placed before a light source to control the direction
Barrier coat A
coating that is applied onto the non-printing side of
paper to add to the opacity of that paper. See also
Baryta paper A
coated stock (barium sulfate compound) used for text
impressions on typesetting machines.
Bas-relief A three-dimensional
impression is which the image stands just slightly out
from the flat background. See also blind emboss.
Base The support
onto which printing plates are fixed.
Base film The foundation
material onto which the film positives are stripped
for making printing plates. See also photomechanical.
Base line The imaginary
horizontal line upon which stand capitals, lower case
letters, punctuation points, etc.
Basic size A standard
size of paper stock; even though the required size may
be smaller or larger.
Basis weight Basis
or basic weight refers to the weight, in pounds, of
a ream (500 sheets) of paper cut to a given standard
size for that particular paper grade.
Bastard Any non-standard
or abnormal element, i.e. a font that is different than
the set of fonts in which it appears.
Bauhaus A design
school in Germany where the Sans Serif font was originated.
Bearoff The adjusting
of spacing of type in order to correct the justification.
Bed The steel flat
table of a cylinder printing press upon which the type
sits during the printing process.
Bending chip A
recycled paperboard product used for making folding
BF An abbreviation
for boldface, used to determine where boldface copy
is to be used. See also boldface.
Bible paper A thin
but strong paper (opaque), used for bibles and books.
Bimetal plate A
plate that is used in long print runs; the printing
image is copper or brass, and the non-printing area
is aluminum or stainless steel.
A heavy paperboard with a cloth covering that is used
for hardback binding of books.
Bite The etching
process in photoengraving requires the application of
an acid; the length of time this acid is left to etch
out an image is referred to as its bite. The more bites,
the deeper the etched area.
Black letter An
old style of typeface used in Germany in the 15th century,
also referred to as Old English (US) and Gothic (UK).
Black out Also
referred to as black patch; a piece of masking material
which is used in layout to mask an area leaving a window
into which another element can be stripped.
Black photo paper
A black paper used to protect photosensitive materials.
Black printer Refers
to the film portion of the colour separation process
that prints black; increases the contrast of neutral
a portion of a sheet of paper due to the excessive pressure
of the calendar roll. See also calendar rolls.
Blanket The rubber
surfaced material, which is secured onto a cylinder
onto which the image is transferred from the plate and
then again transferred to paper.
Blanket to blanket
press A printing method in which there are two blanket
cylinders through which a sheet of paper is passed and
printed on both sides.
Bleed Any copy,
art illustration, photo, colour, etc. that extends past
the edge of the printed page.
Blind emboss A
design or bas relief impression that is made without
using inks or metal foils.
Blind folio A page
that is counted in the overall counting of pages, but
the number is not printed on the page.
Blind image A problem
that arises in the lithography process when an image
loses its ink receptivity and fails to print.
seemingly dry, paper does contain approximately 5% moisture.
In cases where there is excessive moisture, and the
paper is passed through a high heat-drying chamber,
the moisture within the paper actually boils and causes
a bubble or blistering effect.
or line art etched onto zinc or copper plates and used
in letterpress printing.
Block in To sketch
the primary areas and points of reference of an illustration
in preparation for going to final design or production.
The resistance of coated papers to blocking. See also
Blocking The adhesion
of one coated sheet to another, causing paper tears
or particles of the coating to shed away from the paper
Blocking out To
mask a section of an art layout before reproduction.
Blow-up Any enlargement
of photos, copies or line art.
A photographic process whereby flats are exposed to
blacklight and processed to create blue lines of copy
that are proofread before a project goes to press. Also
Body The main shank
or portion of the letter character other than the ascenders
Body A term used
to define the thickness or viscosity of printer's ink.
Body size The point
size of a particular type character.
Boldface Any type
that has a heavier black stroke that makes it more conspicuous.
Bolts The edges
of folded sheets of paper, which are trimmed off in
the final stages of production.
Bond A grade of
durable writing, printing and typing paper that has
a standard size of 17x22 inches.
Book A general
classification to describe papers used to print books;
its standard size is 25x38 inches.
Book A printed
work that contains more than 64 pages.
Book block A term
given the unfinished stage of bookmaking when the pages
are folded, gathered and stitched-in but not yet cover
Bourges A pressure
sensitive colour film that is used to prepare colour
Box cover paper
A lightweight paper used expressly for covering paper
Box enamel paper A
glossy coated paper used to cover paper boxes.
Box liners A coated
paper used on the inside of boxes, which are used for
Brace A character
" }" used to group lines, or phrases.
Break for colour
In layout design, the term for dividing or separating
the art and copy elements into single colour paste-up
Bristol board A
board paper of various thicknesses; having a smooth
finish and used for printing and drawing.
Broad fold A term
given to the fold whereby paper is folded with the short
side running with the grain.
Brocade A heavily
Brochure A pamphlet
that is bound in booklet form.
Bronzing A printing
method whereby special ink is applied to sheets and
then a powder is applied producing a metallic effect.
A photographic proof made by exposing a flat to UV light
creating a brown image on a white background. Also referred
to as silverprint.
Buckle folder A
portion of the binding machinery with rollers that fold
Buckram A coarse
sized cloth used in the bookbinding process.
Bulk A term given
to paper to describe its thickness relative to its weight.
Bulk A term used
to define the number of pages per inch of a book relative
to its given basis weight.
Bullet A boldface
square or dot used before a sentence to emphasize its
Bump Exposure A
process used in halftone photography that temporarily
removes the screen during exposure. This increases the
highlight contrast and diminishes the dots in the whites.
Burn A term used
in plate making to describe the amount of plate exposure
Burnish A term
used for the process of "rubbing down" lines
and dots on a printing plate, which darkens those rubbed
Burst Binding A
binding technique that entails nicking the backfold
in short lengths during the folding process, which allows
glue to reach each individual leaf and create a strong
Cable paper A strong
paper used to wrap electrical cables.
A pigment made from cadmium sulfide and cadmium selenide.
A strong paperboard used for calendars and displays.
Calendar rolls A
series of metal rolls at the end of a paper machine;
when the paper is passed between these rolls it increases
its smoothness and glossy surface.
Caliper The measurement
of thickness of paper expressed in thousandths of an
inch or mils.
Cameo A dull coated
paper, which is particularly useful in reproducing halftones
Camera ready A
term given to any copy, artwork etc., that is prepared
for photographic reproduction.
Canvas board A
paperboard with a surface of simulated canvas, used
Cap line An imaginary
horizontal line running across the tops of capital letters.
Caps & lower case
Instructions in the typesetting process that indicate
the use of a capital letter to start a sentence and
the rest of the letters in lower case.
Caps & small caps
Two sizes of capital letters made in one size of type.
Carbon black A
pigment made of elemental carbon and ash.
Carbon tissue A
colour printing process utilizing pigmented gelatin
coatings on paper, which become the resist for etching
gravure plates or cylinders.
A chemical pulp paper (calcium carbonate), used mostly
for the printing of magazines.
Cartridge A rough
finished paper used for wrapping.
Case The stiff
covers of a hardbound book.
Case binding Books
bound using hard board (case) covers.
Casein A milk byproduct
used as an adhesive in making coated papers.
Casing in The process
of placing in and adhering a book to its case covers.
Cast coated A paper
that is coated and then pressure dried using a polished
roller that imparts an enamel like hard gloss finish.
Catching up A term
to describe that period of the printing process where
the non-image areas can take on ink or debris.
Chain lines Lines
that appear on laid paper as a result of the wires of
the papermaking machine.
Chalking A term
used to describe the quality of print on paper where
the absorption of the paper is so great that it breaks
up the ink image creating loose pigment dust.
A 13th century handwriting style that is the root of
China clay An aluminum
silica compound used in gravure and screen printing
inks. Also called kaolin.
Chrome green The
resulting ink pigment attained from the mixture of chrome
yellow and iron blue.
Chrome yellow A
lead chromate yellow ink pigment.
A screen that utilizes a concentric circle pattern as
opposed to dots used for halftones and to allow the
platemaker to set exact screen angles.
Clay coated boxboard
A strong, easily folded boxboard with clay coating used
for making folding boxes.
Coarse screen Halftone
screens commonly used in newsprint; up to 85 lines per
Coated art paper Printing
papers used for printing projects that require a special
treatment of detail and shading.
Coated stock Any
paper that has a mineral coating applied after the paper
is made, giving the paper a smoother finish.
Cold colour Any
colour that moves toward the blue side in the colour
Cold-set inks A
variety of inks that are in solid form originally but
are melted in a hot press and then solidified when they
Collate To gather
sheets or signatures together in their correct order.
A printers' or publishers' identifying symbol
Colour bars This
term refers to a colour test strip, that is printed
on the waste portion of a press sheet. It is a standardized
(GATF-Graphic Arts Technical Foundation) process that
allows a pressman to determine the quality of the printed
material relative to ink density, registration and dot
gain. It also includes the Star Target, which is a similar
system designed to detect inking problems.
Colour separating The
processes of separating the primary colour components
A term referring to the relative amount of pigmentation
in an ink.
Colour transparency Transparent
film containing a positive photographic colour image.
Commercial register colour
registration measured within plus or minus one row of
Condensed type A
narrow, elongated typeface.
Contact print A
print made from contact of a sensitive surface to a
negative or positive photograph.
A halftone screen made on film of graded density, and
used in a vacuum contact with the film.
Contrast The degree
of tonal separation or gradation in the range from black
Contre jour Taking
a picture with the camera lens facing the light source.
Copy Refers to
any typewritten material, art, photos etc., to be used
for the printing process.
Copyboard A board
upon which the copy is pasted for the purpose of photographing.
Corner marks Marks
on a final printed sheet that indicate the trim lines
or register indicators.
Cover A term describing
a general type of papers used for the covers of books,
Creep When the
rubber blanket on a cylinder moves forward due to contact
with the plate or paper.
Crop To eliminate
a portion of the art or copy as indicated by crop marks.
of fine lines, which intersect to indicate accurate
alignment of art elements.
Crossover A term
used to describe the effect of ink from an image, rule
or line art on one printed page, which carries over
to another page of a bound work.
Curl A term used
to describe the differences of either side of a sheet
relative to coatings, absorbency etc.; the concave side
is the curl side.
Cut-off A term
used in web press printing to describe the point at
which a sheet of paper is cut from the roll; usually
this dimension is equal to the circumference of the
Cyan A shade of
blue used in the four-colour process; it reflects blue
and green and absorbs red.
Cylinder gap The
gap in the cylinders of a press where the grippers or
blanket clamps are housed.
Dahlgren A dampening
system for printing presses which utilizes more alcohol
(25%) and less water; this greatly reduces the amount
of paper that is spoiled.
Dampening An essential
part of the printing process whereby cloth covered rubber
rollers distributes the dampening solution to the plate.
Dandy roll During
the paper making process while the paper is still 90%
water, it passes over a wire mesh cylinder (dandy roll),
which imparts surface textures on the paper such as
wove or laid. This is also the stage where the watermark
is put onto the paper.
Deckle edge The
rough or feathered edge of paper when left untrimmed.
Deep etching The
etching or removal of any unwanted areas of a plate
to create more air or white space on the finished product.
Delete An instruction
given to remove an element from a layout.
Demy A term that
describes a standard sized printing paper measuring
17.5 x 22.5 in.
optical device used by printers and photographers to
measure and control the density of colour.
Density The lay
of paper fibers relative to tightness or looseness that
affects the bulk, the absorbency and the finish of the
Density The degree
of tone, weight of darkness or colour within a photo
or reproduction; measurable by the densitometer. See
Descender A term
that describes that portion of lower case letters that
extends below the main body of the letter, as in "p".
Diazo A light sensitive
coal tar product used as a coating on presensitized
plates, as well as overlay proofs.
Die An engraved
stamp used for impressing an image or design.
Die cutting A method
of using sharp steel ruled stamps or rollers to cut
various shapes i.e. labels, boxes, image shapes, either
post press or in line.
Die Cutting The
process of cutting paper in a shape or design by the
use of a wooden die or block in which are positioned
steel rules in the shape of the desired pattern.
Die stamping An
intaglio process for printing from images engraved into
copper or steel plates.
Digital Proof colour
separation data is digitally stored and then exposed
to colour photographic paper creating a picture of the
final product before it is actually printed.
The qualities of paper to stabilize its original size
when undergoing pressure or exposed to moisture.
Diploma A fine
paper made specifically for the printing of diplomas,
certificates and documents.
Direct screen halftone A
colour separation process using a halftone negative
made by direct contact with the halftone screen.
Display type Any
type that stands out from the rest of the type on a
page that attracts attention of the reader.
Distribution rollers In
the printing process, the rubber coated rollers responsible
for the distribution of ink from the fountain to the
Doctor blade A
term in gravure printing which refers to the knife-edge
that runs along the printing cylinder; its function
is to wipe the excess ink away from the non-printing
Dot The smallest
individual element of a halftone.
Dot gain Terms
to describe the occurrence whereby dots are printing
larger than they should.
Drawdown A method
used by ink makers to determine the colour, quality
and tone of ink. It entails the drawing of a spatula
over a drop of ink, spreading it flat over the paper.
Drier A term that
describes any additives to ink which accelerates the
Drill The actual
drilling of holes into paper for ring or comb binding.
Drop shadow A shadow
image placed strategically behind an image to create
the affect of the image lifting off the page.
Dry mount Pasting with heat
Ductor roller The
roller between the inking and the dampening rollers.
Dull finish Any
matte finished paper.
Dummy A term used
to describe the preliminary assemblage of copy and art
elements to be reproduced in the desired finished product;
also called a comp.
Duotone A two-colour
halftone reproduction generated from a one-colour photo.
Duplex paper Paper
which has a different colour or finish on each side.
Dutch Any deckle
edged paper, originally produced in the Netherlands.
See also deckle edge.
Dye based ink Any
ink that acquires its colour by the use of aniline pigments
or dyes. See also aniline.
Eggshell finish The
finish of paper surface that resembles an eggshell achieved
by omitting the calendar process. See also calendar
Electronic Proof A
process of generating a prepress proof in which paper
is electronically exposed to the colour separation negatives;
the paper is passed through the electrically charged
pigmented toners, which adhere electrostatically, resulting
in the finished proof.
Elliptical dot Halftone
screens in which the dots are actually elongated to
produce improved middle tones.
Em A unit of measurement
equaling 12 points or 4.5mm.
Embossed A method
of paper finishing whereby a pattern is pressed into
the paper when it is dry.
Embossing The molding
and reshaping of paper by the use of special metal dies
and heat, counter dies and pressure, to produce a raised
image on the paper surface.
Emulsion A light-sensitive
substance used as a coating for film; made from a silver
halide compound. This side should face the lens when
the film is exposed.
Enamel A term that
describes a glossy coating on paper.
the final sheet of a signature of a book to the binding.
English finish A
grade of uncoated book paper with a smooth uniform surface.
Engraving A printing
process whereby images such as copy or art are etched
onto a plate. When ink is applied, these etched areas
act as small wells to hold the ink; paper is forced
against this die and the ink is lifted out of the etched
areas creating raised images on the paper.
Estimate The form
used by the printer to calculate the project for the
print buyer. This form contains the basic parameters
of the project including size, quantity, colours, bleeds,
Etch The process
of producing an image on a plate by the use of acid.
Even smalls The
use of smaller sized capitals at the beginning of a
sentence without the use of larger sized caps.
Expanded type Type
with width greater than normal producing a rectangular
Exposure That stage
of the photographic process where the image is produced
on the light-sensitive coating.
Extender A white
pigment added to a coloured pigment to reduce its intensity
and improve its working qualities.
F&G A term
in the binding process referring to folding and gathering.
Fan fold Paper
folding that emulates an accordion or fan, the folds
being alternating and parallel.
Fat face Type that
is quite varied in its use of very thin and very wide
Felt A cloth conveyor
belt that receives papers from the Fourdrinier wire
and delivers it to the drier.
Felt finish The
smoother side of paper, usually a soft weave pattern
used for book papers.
Felt side It is
the top side of the sheet in the paper making process
that does not lie on the Fourdrinier wire.
Filling in A fault
in printing where the ink fills in the fine line or
halftone dot areas.
Film coat Also
called wash coat; any thinly coated paper stock.
Finish The surface
quality of paper.
Fist A symbol used
in printing to indicate the index; seen as a pointing
finger on a hand "+".
Fit The registration
of items within a given page.
Flash point A term
given to the lowest temperature of ignitibility of vapors
given off by a substance.
Flat The assemblage
of negatives and positives that are used as a composite
image to create the printing plate.
Flock paper Paper
that is patterned by sizing, and than coated with powders
of wool or cotton (flock).
Fluid ink Also
called liquid ink; ink with low viscosity.
Flush cover A bound
book or booklet having the cover trimmed to the same
size as the text.
Flushed pigment The
results of combining a wet ink pigment with a varnish
and having the wet pigment mix or transfer over to the
Foils Papers that
have a surface resembling metal.
Font The characters
which make up a complete typeface and size.
Form rollers The
rollers that come into direct contact with the plate
of a printing press.
Fourdrinier A machine
with a copper wire screen that receives the pulp slurry
in the paper making process; it will become the final
Free sheet Any
paper that is free from wood pulp impurities.
Fringe A halo that
appears around halftone dots.
Fugitive inks colours
that lose tone and permanency when exposed to light.
Furnish The slurry
mixture of fibers, water, chemicals and pigments that
is delivered to the Fourdrinier machine in the paper
Fuzz A term for
the fibers that project from the paper surface.
Galley proof A
proof of text copy before it is pasted into position
Ganging The bundling
of two or more different printing projects on the same
sheet of paper.
sheets of paper and signatures into their proper sequence;
See also collate.
Glassine A strong
Gloss ink Quick
drying oil-based inks with low penetration qualities,
used on coated stock.
Glyphic A carved
as opposed to scripted typeface.
Goldenrod An orange
coloured paper with gridlines, used to assemble materials
for exposure for platemaking.
Grain Paper fibers
lie in a certain direction, this direction is called
Grained paper A
paper embossed to resemble various textures, such as
leather, alligator, wood, etc.
Gravure An intaglio
or recessed printing process. The recessed areas are
like wells that form the image as paper passes through.
Gripper A series
of metal fingers that hold each sheet of paper as it
passes through the various stages of the printing process.
Gripper edge The
grippers of the printing press move the paper through
the press by holding onto the leading edge of the sheet;
this edge is the gripper edge.
cost papers such as newsprint made by the mechanical
pulping process as opposed to chemical pulping and refining.
Gumming The application
of gum arabic to the non-printing areas of a plate.
Gutter The blank
space or margin between the type page and the binding
of a book.
Hairline Register Printing
registration that lies within the range of plus or minus
one half row of dots. It is the thinnest of the standard
Halftone The use
of screening devices to convert a continuous tone image
(such as a photo), into a reproducible dot pattern,
which can be more easily printed.
Halftone paper A
high finish paper that is ideal for halftone printing.
Halftone screen A
sheet of film or glass containing ruled right-angled
lines, used to translate the full tone of a photo to
the halftone dot image required for printing.
Hard dot The effect
in a photograph where a dot has such a small degree
of halation that the dot shows quite sharp.
Head margin That
space which lies between the top of the printed copy
and the trimmed edge.
Hickey A term used
to describe the effect that occurs when a spec of dust
or debris (dried ink) adheres to the printing plate
and creates a spot or imperfection in the printing.
High bulk paper
Paper stock that is comparatively thick in relation
to its basis weight.
High key halftone A
halftone that is made utilizing only the highlight tones
down through the middle tones.
lightest tones of a photo, printed halftone or illustration.
In the finished halftone, these highlights are represented
by the finest dots.
Hollow That space
on the spine of a case-bound book between the block
of the book and the case binding.
Hot melt An adhesive
used in the binding process, which requires heat for
House sheet This
is a term that refers to a paper that a printer keeps
on hand in his shop.
Image area That
portion of the printing plate that carries the ink and
prints on paper.
correct sequential arrangement of pages that are to
be printed, along with all the margins in proper alignment,
before producing the plates for printing.
pressure of the image carrier, whether it be the type,
plate or blanket, when it contacts the paper.
Index bristol A
relatively thick paper stock; basis size---25 1/2 x
pre-printed on mailing envelopes to replace the stamp.
Industrial papers A
term used to denote papers such as janitorial, sanitary
or heavy packing papers.
Ink fountain The
device that stores and meters ink to the inking rollers.
Ink holdout A quality
of paper to be resistant to ink absorption, allowing
the ink to dry on the paper surface.
Ink mist Any threads
or filaments that protrude from the main printed letter
body of long inks, as seen in newsprint.
Ink setting The
inertial resistance to flow that occurs to ink as soon
as it is printed.
Inkometer A device
used to measure the tack of ink.
Insert A piece
of printed material that is prepared for the purpose
of being inserted into another piece of printed material,
such as a magazine.
Integral Proof A
proof made by exposing each of the four-colour separations
to an emulsion layer of primary colours. These emulsion
sheets are stacked in register with a white sheet of
paper in the background. Types of integral proofs are
cromalin, matchprint, ektaflex, and spactraproof.
Iridescent paper A
coated stock finished in mother-of-pearl.
Italic Text that
is used to denote emphasis by slanting the type body
Jacket The paper
cover sometimes called the "dust cover" of
a hardbound book.
Jog To vibrate
a stack of finished pages so that they are tightly aligned
for final trimming.
Kerning The narrowing
of space between two letters so that they become closer
and take up less space on the page.
Key plate The printing
plate that is used as a guide for the other plates in
the colour printing process; it usually has the most
Keying The use
of symbols, usually letters, to code copy that will
appear on a dummy.
Keyline Lines that
are drawn on artwork that indicate the exact placement,
shape and size of elements including halftones, illustrations,
A delicate printed impression, just heavy enough to
Kraft A coarse
unbleached paper used for printing and industrial products.
Lacquer A clear
gloss coating applied to printed material for strength,
appearance and protection.
Laid finish A parallel
lined paper that has a handmade look.
A paper cutting technique whereby laser technology is
utilized to cut away certain unmasked areas of the paper.
The cutting is a result of the exposure of the paper
to the laser ray, which actually evaporates the paper.
Layout A rendition
that shows the placement of all the elements, roughs,
thumbnails etc., of the final printed piece before it
goes to print.
Leaders The dots
or dashes used in type to guide the eye from one set
of type to the next.
Leading Space between
lines of type; the distance in points between one baseline
and the next.
Leaf stamping A
metal die, either flat or embossed, created from the
image or copy, which is then heated to a specific temperature
allows the transfer of a film of pigmented polyester
to the paper.
Ledger paper A
stiff, heavy business paper generally used for keeping
Length The optimum
length of a filament of ink.
that utilizes inked raised surfaces to create the image.
addition of space between typeset letters.
Line copy Any copy
that can be reproduced without the use of halftone screens.
Linen A paper that
emulates the look and texture of linen cloth.
A paper that is coated with a special water-resistant
material that is able to withstand the lithographic
process of printing that utilizes flat inked surfaces
to create the printed images.
Logotype A personalized
type or design symbol for a company or product.
M weight The actual
weight of 1000 sheets of any given size of paper.
Machine coated Paper
that has had a coating applied to either one or two
of its sides during the papermaking process.
Machine direction An
alternate term for grain direction.
A paper finish that results from the interaction of
the paper with the Fourdrinier process as opposed to
post machine embossing. See also Fourdrinier.
Magnetic black Black
pigments containing black iron oxides, used for magnetic
ink character recognition.
that is used in the press set-up process before the
printing run actually starts.
Mask The blocking
out of a portion of the printing plate during the exposure
Mask A photo negative
or positive used in the colour separation process to
Matte finish A
coated paper finish that goes through minimal calendaring.
Measure The width
of type as measured in picas. See also pica.
Mechanical A term
used to describe finished artwork that is camera ready
for reproduction, including all type, photos, illustrations,
undesirable halftone pattern produced by the incorrect
angles of overprinting halftone screens.
Molleton A cotton
fabric used on the dampening rollers of a printing press.
An ink pigment made from precipitating lead molybdate,
lead sulfate and lead chromate.
Mottle A term used
to describe spotty or uneven ink absorption.
Mullen testing A
specific test of tensile paper strength; an important
factor if web presses are used for printing.
Natural A term
to describe papers that have a colour similar to that
of wood; also called cream, off-white or ivory.
Negative Film that
contains the same images as the original print, except
that all colours and shades are reversed. See also positive.
Newsprint A light,
low-cost groundwood paper made especially for newspapers.
See also groundwood.
Nominal weight When
the basis weight of paper differs from the actual weight,
the term nominal weight is used.
Oblong A term used
to describe printed books, catalogs, etc., that are
bound on their shorter side; also referred to as album
Offset The most
commonly used printing method, whereby the printed material
does not receive the ink directly from the printing
plate but from an intermediary cylinder called a blanket
that receives the ink from the plate and transfers it
to the paper.
A complex offset process involving multiple transfers
between the gravure plate, the plate cylinder and a
solid rubber plate.
Offset paper A
term for uncoated book paper.
Any papers made outside the US and Canada.
Onionskin A light
bond paper used for typing and used with carbon paper
because of its thinness.
of papers that defines its opaqueness or ability to
prevent two-sided printing from showing through.
Opaque A quality
of paper that allows relatively little light to pass
Opaque ink Ink
that completely covers any ink under itself.
light sensitive surfaces that are not sensitive to red.
A cover of a book that extends over the trimmed signatures
Overlay A transparent
sheet placed over artwork, in register with the work
it covers; this is used to call out other colour components
of the work, instructions or corrections.
Overlay proof A
process of proof-making whereby the colour separations
are individually exposed to light sensitive film. This
film is then set in registration with a piece of white
paper in the background.
printing that is done on an area that has already been
of sheets printed over the requested number of copies.
Overset Type that
is set in excess of the allotted space.
Page makeup The
assemblage of all the necessary elements required to
complete a page.
or other photographic materials that are sensitive to
paper with a thickness (caliper) of 12 points (.3mm)
Papeterie A high-grade
soft paper used for personal stationery because it accepts
Parchment A hard
finished paper that emulates animal skin; used for documents,
such as awards, that require writing by hand.
Parent sheet A
sheet that is larger than the cut stock of the same
Paste drier Any
of a variety of compounds used in enhancing the drying
properties of printing inks.
Paste ink An ink
having a high level of viscosity.
Perfect A term
used to describe the binding process where the signatures
of a book are held together by a flexible adhesive.
A printing press that prints on both sides of the page
in a single pass.
Phloxine A blue
red pigment used mostly in news inks; not a good ink
for lithographers, as it bleeds in alcohol and water.
The platemaking process where plates are coated with
photosensitive coatings and exposed to photo negatives
Photostat A photographic
print creating an image using photography and electrostatic
processes; also called a stat.
main pigment in the manufacture of cyan ink.
Pica A typesetting
unit of measurement equaling 1/6th of an inch.
Picking When the
tack of ink is stronger than the surface strength of
the paper, some lifting of the paper surface occurs;
this is referred to as picking.
Picking An occurrence
in printing whereby the tack of ink pulls fibers or
coating off the paper surface, leaving spots on the
Piling A build
up of pigment or paper coatings onto the plate, blankets
Pin register Using
metal pins fitted into preset holes of copy sheets,
films, plates and presses that will assure the proper
Plastic comb A
method of binding books whereby holes are drilled on
the side closest to the spine, and a plastic grasping
device is inserted to hold the pages together.
ink additive that adds flexibility, softness and adhesion.
The cylinder on a printing press on which the plate
Plate finish Any
bond, cover or bristol stock with an extremely smooth
finish achieved by calendaring.
Point A measurement
unit equal to 1/72 of an inch. 12 points to a pica,
72 points to an inch.
Positive Film that
contains an image with the same tonal values as the
original; opposite of a negative. See also negative.
PPI Pages per inch.
Premium Any paper
that is considered better than #1 by its manufacturer.
A plate that has been treated with light sensitive coatings
by the manufacturer.
In printing the four primary colours are cyan (blue),
magenta (red), yellow and black.
quality of papers to show reproduced printed images.
Process lens A
high quality specialty lens made for line art, halftone
and colour photography.
Printing from two or more half tones to produce intermediate
colours and shades.
Any proofs made from the separate plates of a multi-plate-printing
Rag paper Papers
with a complete or partial content of cotton fibers.
Ragged left The
term given to right-justified type that is uneven on
Ragged right The
term given to left-justified type that is uneven on
Railroad A thick,
coated paper used for signs; usually waterproof.
Ream 500 sheets
Recto The odd numbered
pages (right hand side) of books.
Red lake "C"
A common pigment for paste and liquid red inks.
Reducer Any substance
that softens and reduces the tack of ink.
Reel The master
roll of paper as it comes off the papermaking machine.
It is in its original width and is then cut into smaller
Register The arrangement
of two or more images in exact alignment with each other.
Any crossmarks or other symbols used on layout to assure
Right angle fold
A term that denotes folds that are 90 degrees to each
Roll to roll A
web press printing process where the roll of paper is
printed and stored on a roll to beshipped.
Rub proof That
stage of printed ink where the maximum dryness is achieved,
and the ink will not smudge.
Rubine A pigment
somewhat redder than true magenta.
Runability A term
used to describe how well a paper runs on a printing
Run-around A term
given to copy that accommodates the lines of a picture
or other image or copy.
Running head A
title at the top of a page that appears on all pages
of a book or chapter of a book.
Saddle stitch The
binding of booklets or other printed materials by stapling
the pages on the folded spine; also called saddle wire.
Safety paper A
paper that shows sign of erasure so that it cannot be
altered or tampered with easily.
Satin finish A
smooth, delicately embossed finished paper with sheen.
Scaling The enlargement
or reduction of an image or copy to fit a specific area.
Scoring To impress
paper with a rule for the purpose of making folding
Screen angles The
placement of halftone screens to avoid unwanted moiré
patterns. Frequently used angles are black 45º,
magenta 75º, yellow 90º, and cyan 105º.
Screen ruling A
measurement equaling the number of lines or dots per
inch on a halftone screen.
A photo print made by using a halftone negative; also
called a velox.
Scum Unwanted ink
marks in the non-image area.
Self cover A cover
made out of the same paper stock as the internal sheets.
Sharpen To decrease
the dot size of the halftone, which in turn decreases
the colour strength.
Sheetwise The printing
of two different images on two different sides of a
sheet of paper by turning the page over after the first
side is printed and using the same gripper and side
Short ink Ink that
is smooth and creamy but does not flow freely.
Show through A
problem that occurs when the printing on one side of
a sheet is seen from the other side.
Side guide The
guides on the sides of the sheet fed press that position
the sheet sideways as the paper is led towards the front
Side stitch To
staple sheets or signatures on the side closest to the
Signature A printed
sheet with many pages on it that is folded so that the
pages are in their proper numbered sequence, as in a
A halftone with the background screen removed.
also brownline proof.
Slitting A term
to describe the process of cutting of printed sheets
by the cutting wheels of a printing press.
quality of paper defined by its levelness that allows
for pressure consistency in printing, assuring uniformity
Soft dot An excessively
large halo around a dot in a photograph that causes
a fringe that diminishes the dot intensity.
Spiral bind A binding
whereby a wire or plastic is spiraled through holes
punched along the binding side.
Spread A film image
that is larger than the original image to accommodate
ink trapping. See also trapping.
Stability The quality
of paper to maintain its original size when it undergoes
pressure and moisture changes.
A process of cutting many sheets from the same parent
sheet in which the smaller sheets have different grain
directions; also called dutch or bastard cutting.
Star target The
Graphic Arts Technical Foundation, GATF, has established
various quality control images; the star target appears
along with the colour bar and helps the pressman detect
any irregularity in the ink spread. See also colour
A device on a printing press that minimizes the amount
of static buildup on paper as it passes through the
Step and repeat A
process of generating multiple exposures by taking an
image and stepping it according to a predetermined layout.
Stet A proofreader's
symbol that is usually written in the copy margin, that
indicates that the copy, which was marked for correction,
should be left as it was.
Stock A term for
unprinted paper or other material to be printed.
Strip-in To add
an element, such as copy that is shot separately, and
then stripped into place on a goldenrod flat.
Stripping The positioning
of positives and negatives on the flat before proceeding
Super calendaring A
machine procedure that produces a high finished paper
surface that is extremely smooth and exceptional for
Any petroleum-based waterproof papers with a high tensile
Tack The adhesive
quality of inks.
Tag A dense, strong
A paper's ability to withstand pressure.
Text A high quality
printing process whereby slow drying ink is applied
to paper and, while the ink is still wet, is lightly
dusted with a resinous powder. The paper then passes
through a heat chamber where the powder melts and fuses
with the ink to produce a raised surface.
Through drier A
slower drier that dries the ink throughout without forming
a hard crust.
Envelopes used mostly for theater tickets, with no other
Tint A halftone
screen that contains all the same sized dots.
A bright white pigment (opaque) used for printing on
metal and flexible packaging.
Toluidine red A
red pigment with poor bleed resistance.
Tooth The rough
surfaced finish of papers such as vellum or antique.
that do not block out the coloured inks that they print
over, but instead blend with them to create intermediate
Trapping The process
of printing wet ink over printed ink, which may be wet
Trim marks Marks
placed on the sheet to indicate where to cut the page.
Twin wire machine Fourdrinier
papermaking machines with two wires, instead of a wire
and felt side. This assures higher quality when two
sides are used for printing.
difference in feel and appearance of either side of
a sheet of paper due to the papermaking process having
a felt and wire side.
that are not smoothed by going through the calendaring
Up A term used
to describe how many similar sheets can be produced
on a larger sheet; two up, four up, etc.
Upright A term
given to books bound on the longer dimension.
Vacuum frame Also
called a contact frame; used in the platemaking process
to hold materials in tight contact during exposure.
Variable Data Printing Is
a form of on-demand printing in which elements (such
as text, graphics, photographs, etc) can be changed
from one printed piece to the next, without stopping
or slowing down the press, using information from a
database. For example, a set of personalized letters,
each with the same basic layout, can be printed with
a different name and address on each letter.
Varnish The primary
component of the ink vehicle. See also vehicle.
Vehicle A combination
of varnish, waxes, dryers, etc., which contains the
pigment of inks and controls the flow, the drying and
the adhesion of the pigments to the printed surface.
Vellum A finish
of paper that is rough, bulky and has a degree of tooth.
Velour paper A
term given to papers that are coated with an adhesive
and then flock dusted.
Velox A photographic
print that is made from a negative.
Verso A term given
to the left-hand or even-numbered pages of a book.
Vignette A photo
or illustration, in which the tones fade gradually away
until they blend with the surface they are printed on.
W&B An abbreviation
for work and back. See also sheetwise.
W&T An abbreviation
for work and turn.
Walk-off A term
given to the occurrence of plate deterioration of the
image area during the printing process; usually occurs
on long runs.
Washup The procedure
of cleaning a particular ink from all of the printing
elements (rollers, plate, ink fountain etc.) of a press.
Watermark A translucent
logo that is embossed during the papermaking process
while the paper slurry is on the dandy roll. See also
Web The roll of
paper that is used in web or rotary printing.
Web break A tear
in a web roll during the printing process.
Web press A printing
press that prints on rolls of paper passed through the
press in one continuous piece, as opposed to sheets
Web tension The
term given to the tension or pull exerted by the web
press on the web roll.
Wedding paper A
soft paper that is thick and holds up well under embossing.
Wet trapping The
ability of an ink film to accept subsequent ink films.
Widow A single
word or two left at the end of a paragraph, or a part
of a sentence ending a paragraph, which loops over to
the next page and stands alone. Also, the last sentence
of a paragraph, which contains only one or two short
Wipe on plate A
plate on which is wiped a light sensitive coating by
a coating device; usually the first step in this type
Wire side That
side of the paper that lies on the wire screen side
of the papermaking machine.
Wove A smooth paper
made on finely textured wire that gives the paper a
gentle patterned finish.
Wrinkles The unevenly
dried surface of printed inks.
Writing paper Another
name for bond paper.
Papers made to reproduce well in copy machines and laser
Yield value The
actual amount of force needed to start an ink flowing.